How This Fusion Reactor Will Make Electricity by 2024

Electric Future

Electric Future

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    Can this new nuclear fusion generator make unlimited clean electricity?
    • first 200 people get 20% off annual premium subscription.
    • Deeper dive into Helion's materials, methods, and fusion approach. (unlisted bonus content)
    •Organizations all across the world are racing to achieve a fusion power breakthrough. Many critics say nuclear fusion is impossible, but Helion Energy believes they’ve cracked the code…
    If you could design the perfect energy source, it would have an inexhaustible supply of fuel, be environmentally friendly, not take up much space, and have a high degree of safety.
    The fuels considered for fusion power have traditionally all been isotopes of hydrogen, but there are better fusion reactions using elements like helium-3. Nuclear Fusion 3.0
    What is nuclear fusion? Nuclear fusion explained: an experimental form of power generation that harnesses the energy released when two atoms combine.
    How does nuclear fusion work? Every atom is composed of a nucleus and one or more electrons. The nucleus is made up of protons, and neutrons. A fusion reactor heats fusion fuels into plasma and fuses light elements into heavier elements.
    What is plasma? If you heat atoms to high enough temperatures, they lose their electrons, forming a hot cloud of charged particles called a plasma.
    What about nuclear fusion in the sun? In the core of the sun, gravity produces high pressures, compressing elements to high densities and temperatures. Perfectly extreme conditions for hydrogen to fuse into helium.
    There are three key groups of fusion approaches, Magnetic fusion (ITER, Tokamak, Stellarator) Inertial confinement fusion (National Ignition Facility, Indirect drive, direct drive, lasers) and Magneto inertial fusion (Helion).
    For fusion power to make commercial electricity for the power grid you need to achieve breakeven, and then net electricity gain to create a viable fusion power plant. That is real world electricity. The triple product is the key figure of merit for fusion.
    Some critical components of a fusion generator are electromagnets, capacitors, first wall, and the divertor.
    When does Helion expect to begin producing electricity from nuclear fusion, and how much will nuclear fusion power cost? Fusion power is projected to be one of the cheapest sources of clean zero carbon energy and electricity.
    To accomplish commercial fusion power, Helion approaches production in a way that’s reminiscent of Elon Musk’s strategy for Tesla. Turning fusion power into a real world technology is going to be a long road, but people said the same thing about SpaceX. Despite the challenges, harnessing the power of the stars and offering mankind unlimited clean energy is a goal worth striving for.
    •Electric Future® has no commercial relationship with Helion Energy. Helion Energy did not solicit, endorse, or approve original commentary made by Electric Future.
    Gentle Kisses on Both Cheeks European Style:
    •Alexander Svan - SpaceX Animation
    •Alex Landress - Penn State Breazeale Reactor
    •Music: LEMMiNO Aloft - - CC BY-SA 4.0

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    1. Muonium

      I've been an engineer on one of the biggest laser driven inertial confinement fusion reactors for a couple decades now and I'll be blunt, the vast majority of fusion hype videos on the internet, or anywhere really, are hot garbage not at all worth my time. This video really impressed me though, both in its accuracy and detail, and its relative thoroughness in examination of the RFC scheme for magnetically confined fusion. The sources and citations are quality 👌. Compliments do not come easily or frequently from me, but this video does deserve them. I will subscribe in hopes that the current rigorous heavy science focus isn't lost over time in favor more lazy clickbait trash as I've seen so many other channels unfortunately fall prey to.

      1. Alan Malcheski

        these are fantastic and I wish I had time to read every reply here, but isn't LCF much cheaper and simpler, and why couldn't it be used to make electricity, somehow?

      2. Herbert Donnell Gray III

        @Eric Huet I as well. And I'm not an engineer. I'm just a nerd obsessed with being informed about something this grand and awesome.

      3. Muonium

        @Eric Huet Salutations! Not NIF though....OMEGA LLE. We make many of your massive turning mirrors. How close to being complete is LMJ these days? Has the recent NIF ignition shot resulted in any excitement / eagerness to get LMJ completed?

      4. Eric Huet

        I'm glad to finally read from à NIF I spent 15 years working on LMJ in France. Greetings colleague !

      5. The Writing Engineer

        @H. Donnell Gray III 🙂

    2. senselocke

      I have to give you props for your editing, effects, animations, and explanations. This could easily devolve into little more than a promotional video, but you framed it in a much more narratively interesting way, so instead of being "sold" on an idea, the viewer is learning new concepts and following along on a developing story and journey. And you're skilled enough to render complicated processes into simple, effective descriptions, and the animations are clear, simple, and coordinated with the descriptions in such a way that they add clarity and support. I was expecting to find out a neat thing or two; instead I now want to share this with a few friends because it's just bloody cool. Really, really well-made video! =)

      1. Michael Quis Ut Deus

        Agreed. This is an excellent appraisal of the video. Not only is this project fascinating in itself, but the way it's all presented makes it more than the sum of it's parts.

      2. Electric Future


    3. Craig Muranaka

      Love that Helton plans to generate electricity without boiling water to make steam to turn turbines. I’m rooting for Helion. I even love how they’re solving the helium 3 issue.

      1. Dan Miller

        @Alan Malcheski you don't know what your talking about....😝😝😝😝😱😱 I guess your going to the moon and mine some liquid hulium 3...😳😳😳🤣🤣🤣🤣🤣🤣🤣🤣

      2. Alan Malcheski

        @Dan Miller one hundred... billion... dollars...?

      3. Dan Miller

        @HRN do u know how much helium3 cost?

      4. Dan Miller

        @HRN good luck with that dream.....

      5. HRN

        ​@Dan Miller they're literally bottling the power of a star and all you can offer is complaints about the fuel source 🤣

    4. old veteran

      I wasn't aware we had even reached the "break-even point" with nuclear fusion, even on a small scale, where the energy created is greater than the energy used to create it.

    5. Stephany Gates

      I love that they named the “early fusion power pinch device” at Los Alamos the Perhapsatron. I’ve been waiting for fusion since the first nuclear reactors were built in my childhood. This was such a wonderfully informative presentation.

      1. Alan Malcheski

        ... and LCF... lattice confinement.

      2. Alan Malcheski

        what do you think of the LDX at MIT?

    6. 5133937

      Helion’s design is a first in more ways than one. Besides fusion itself, the most interesting aspect is that unlike all other fossil fuel and nuclear electricity-generating schemes, it doesn’t work by heating up water into steam which then turns a turbine to generate electricity. Instead electricity is created directly by manipulating the plasma’s magnetic field to drive a current through wires. That’s amazing. It’s way past time humanity moved beyond steam-powered turbines.

      1. That Guy Alex :)

        When I watched this video, and others about the Helion, my mind was blown when they said no turbine would be used. :) As a teenager in 2016, I have always wondered if there was a material that could directly capture the energy. Thought this tech wouldn't come out until 2060s, but if they can do this by 2024, wow. Would be nice to see a paper from Helion so I can try to understand how electricity flows directly from the reaction to the power lines without a turbine. Sounds like the plasma makes a magnetic field that varies rapidly, which when it moves across thin metallic ribbons or wires, produce electricity. Would this be a varying DC current, or AC current? Also, how do they smooth out the power output? I'm guessing some form of capacitor or something? Man, science is cool stuff man. God bless the folks at Helion, or whomever you believe in. I'm ready to go zero emissions for the world.

      2. Land and Lore Photograph Off Road Adventures

        Why ? is there something wrong with using steam ? Steam driven turbines will be with us for a long time yet, it is just way to convenient and useful.

      3. Land and Lore Photograph Off Road Adventures

        @Raj Seenath No it can not be done that easy with a fission reactor. Fission reactors do not generate huge magnetic fields and have no plasma, they give of enormous amounts of heat that we use to make super critical steam that can be very easily converted to mechanical energy to drive a turbine There really is not many ways we can convert heat energy into electrical energy and steam is by far the cheapest and most efficient method and will be with us for many 100s of years yet.

      4. Edward Elizabeth Hitler

        @Putins Cat Yeah, beta's more efficient but anything with the power to ionise works.

      5. Putins Cat

        @Edward Elizabeth Hitler Most, but you can also use alpha radiation. Any net buildup of charge would do the trick. In a reactor I imagine they would just use magnetic coils to transfer the moving charge.

    7. Manuel Morales

      I agree that this new type of fusion reactor is much closer to viability that the previous methods. This magnetic vortex has a real chance at success. We may be looking at a long awaited upgrade to our energy needs. Unlimited energy is the dream, here we have a renewed hope. Keeping my fingers crossed.

      1. Alan Malcheski

        ... LDX at MIT

      2. Alan Malcheski

        there's something like this at the lab... Fermi labs I think, or a college... It's a levitating dipole reactor that is 12-15ft across. That can do this, and it's old. They say it's a novel reactor. Not functional. It's functional. You don't keep a thing that big sitting in your lab as a curio.

      3. Alan Malcheski

        I have seen things like this in my mind for 30 years. Why would this take so long to make? And after finding these and thinking they're awesome I found out about LCF, using simple equipment like vacuum tubes, they can do better, more dense fusion than these ever could. And that was invented by mistake 70 years ago. And I was never too smart to begin with. So.... ..... ... wtf

    8. Lucas

      This is the most exciting and concrete fusion reactor design I’ve ever seen. Specifically targeting at electricity generation, which different from so many different “breakeven” targeted design in the industry. I rarely comment on ur, but I truly hope they can achieve net goals in relatively short timeframe.

    9. Prototype9 Nine

      I was once optimistic on this project but now it seems too good to be possible, but if you are sure you can pull it out who am I to discourage you. Go for it ,we all want free abundant energy. I imagine what we can do with this energy, for instance space travel. This is a goal worth spending time on. MAY THE FORCE BE WITH YOU

    10. Unmannedair

      Honestly, I was expecting another hot poo fusion video. Very well done. I also like this guy's idea. It shares a lot in common with the line of thought from a traditional piston engine. Thinking to myself, but this wouldn't be so difficult to build on a hobby scale. At least the demonstrators style grade. There's a lot of other old ideas you can tack on to this. Damn it now I've got that itch again... You've probably inspired me to do something stupid. Congratulations. My girlfriend will probably hate you. 😂

      1. Connor Mangus

        Good luck!!!

    11. Massive Cumshot

      In 7 years watching KZsection I've never seen a more detailed, clear and information packed video. I want to invest in technology like this and will be contacting Helion because of this video.

      1. Rob

        I agree Helion has great merit, BUT don't be blinded by science. Consider that much simpler methods like molten salt solar concentrators have failed commercial viability (befor Putin) because they had to pay people to pollish the mirrors and maintain their tracking mechanisms in non hostile conditions. Also this would be very long term - more like thirty years before ROI - how long are you prepared to wait and what might happen in the meanwhile.

    12. WiseGuy

      lovely. I was studying Architecture when I first researched into nuclear fusion for a speculative project in 2015. Glad to see that commercialized nuclear fusion is coming to the real world and not just on the drawing boards and laboratories.

    13. Ryan Larson

      Seems clear to me that they'd employ a steam turbine sub-system to capture the heat as best they could, in addition to their more direct approach. I mean, this thing is going to need a serious cooling jacket, right? That can at least get their energy conversion percentages up. Even if they aren't talking about it for PR purposes, they'll do it.

      1. Mad Calm

        They will also get a lot of neutrons in process of producing H3 from D. It means a lot of heat & some radiation - a point to attach steam turbines as well.

      2. DarkHobo

        @Ed Clark my friend. Steam generation is how we create electricity. Generating heat is not an issue for a power plant.

      3. Ed Clark

        Yeah it wasn't at all clear to me how they would deal with/extract all the heat generated. Color me skeptical.

    14. John Hull

      Just flipping things on their head in my head: I've seen helium be cooled to a liquid. Has anyone attempted magnetically compressing that? Starting with a liquid gas seems like a good starting point for getting atoms as close as possible. It would be near zero K. But then you have a liquid fuel that can be supplied like fuel in a lamp.

    15. David Askew-Renaut

      Finally a well thought out and well presented description of a real fusion option.

    16. Adam Ross

      Some thoughts: Fantastic video. As others have mentioned, this is the first time I've heard of anyone coming up with a method to harness electricity directly from the fusion process. Most talk of fusion leaves that part out. The explanation and visuals are fantastic for detailing how the various fusion methods function. Its technical enough to be accurate, but is still accessible. And finally: If you turn their quartz injection chamber on its side, and sub out the pink light for blue.......... wouldn't we see that on the Enterprise-D? :O

    17. TheTalkingAnvil

      Finally a great video on the subject. I really hope I'm alive to see Fusion becoming commercially viable.

      1. Alan Malcheski

        @TheTalkingAnvil you still can't buy a quantum computer, to this day. I have invested in a co. that will give you Access to their D wave quantum cpu., but to my knowledge, civilians cannot even buy a computer that has quantum power. Because that's a potential weapon. If what I'm saying is true... history may have r err repeated itself and been rewritten fifty times, already.

      2. Alan Malcheski

        @TheTalkingAnvil These things are doing magnetic levitation, they could do quantum levitation, and then they're just a hop skip and leap from having a gravity field generator. As I'm discussing with my friend at jaytee RC channel, who has his own ufo channel... When you start messing with space you're messing with time, whether you know it or not. And as I'm learning, that is also messing with gravity. So if you start messing with gravity, what are you messing with also? And if you can manipulate time and space, you're more dangerous than a guy with a bomb. You could walk into a bank, freeze time, rob it and nobody, Nobody could even move. Nope

      3. Alan Malcheski

        @TheTalkingAnvil I mean it's already real, it exists, it could be commercially available. The problem is this...

      4. TheTalkingAnvil

        @Alan Malcheski The way it's going I can't say I got lots of hope. I mean, I still got a long way, but people say "it's just around the corner" a lot more.

      5. Alan Malcheski

        You are

    18. Warren Erickson

      Reminds me of two rocket engines firing directly into each other, so they might need to keep it small for the same reason one builds rockets with small engines. The physics of the complete system are simple which is great, but the engineering and material science needed are going to be mind boggling difficult to withstand continuous operation.

      1. Elmar Moelzer

        They can build these machine quite big, if they want to. From what I understand it is easier to build them bigger than smaller from a physics point of view. They want to make them small though to allow for mass production and easy road transportation. Anything over 3 meters in diameter does not fit under underpasses.

    19. Eric

      I'm tentatively excited that this technology will work out commercially, it makes sense to directly grab the electrical energy from the plasma instead of trying to capture heat energy from neutrons as that seems to be one of the major weak points of other forms of fusion where even if they can sustain a reaction actually capturing that energy economically is a huge challenge. Doesn't really touch on how they're going to get Helium 3 though.

      1. Elmar Moelzer

        It is in the video actually. They make it by fusing Deuterium.

    20. Blair Zettl

      Congrats for the well-produced video and this important technology. A few comments: renewables will never ever provide baseload power. Most important use case is off-grid, specifically where the cost of installing grid infrastructure exceeds the cost of renewables c/w storage. "Modern" nuclear plants are not LWRs, those are old plants designed to create bomb-making material. High efficiency plants such as molten salt reactors (MSRs) are truly modern. The reason for this is MSRs are 6 times more efficient that LWRs, are much safer, similar to Helion's design, require energy input in order to sustain reaction, and produce radio active waste with a half-life of 300 years, not 10s of thousands. They can also be manufactured and output modular units, then retrofitted into old coal-fire plants, leveraging all of the existing infrastructure. This tech came out of ORNL in the 60s lead by Alvin Weinberg, brought back to life by Sorensen of Flibe Energy. Terrestrial Energy is also utilizing this tech planning a full roll-out by 2030.

      1. No Limit Arcade

        For far more than a half of a century, the "Fusion Theory" has made it's proponents very wealthy, those proponents include the Oil Industry that want to extend the market life of THEIR product, dirty fossil fuels. See.THORIUM

    21. Christopher Carr

      I wonder if supplying the Grid should be the first goal. Seems like on-site power generation for energy-intensive industry (desalination, aluminum plants, large server farms, etc) might be a better early business plan.

      1. Elmar Moelzer

        They are going to for early adopters like datacenters and industry first. Then the grid and also things like large cargo ships.

    22. Empowered Choice

      Thank you for this content. It is very well put together and entertaining for someone like me that knows nothing about the subject.

      1. Robert Glover

        Same. Seem out of my league compared to all these other commentators

    23. Ago go

      Great video, cant wait to see if it works. They aren't the only ones trying to create this, and im sure they aren't sharing findings, so we can expect delays

      1. eMPee584

        … Yes you're right, fusion technology should be OPEN SOURCE! 🤓

    24. The Authority!

      Finally, a proper fusion reactor, harvesting electricity DIRECTLY from the fusion reaction 👍

    25. Ziroth

      Incredibly made video as always! Great to see more about Helium-3 fusion after learning more about the challenges of D-T fusion (although there are some interesting solutions to that which show promise). I still need to look into it more, but the initial D-D fusion to create the He3 makes more sense given the low electronvolts of the neutron it shoots off, as I know the neutrons from D-T fusion can be quite problematic! Hopefully I can get in contact with them to get into more details about their D-D to D-He3 process! Thanks for sharing.

      1. Tadd Mooney

        @Searl Effect Generator To think in all those classes I had to take while getting my chemistry degree that not once did anyone mention electrons do not exist. Color me embarassed. I'd better sell my electrochemical reactor before word gets out.

      2. No Limit Arcade

        For far more than a half of a century, the "Fusion Theory" has made it's proponents very wealthy, those proponents include the Oil Industry that want to extend the market life of THEIR product, dirty fossil fuels. See.THORIUM

      3. Searl Effect Generator

        In nuclear weapons, atoms are split apart to release energy. This process, called fission, doesn't work so well in nuclear power plants. The problem is that atoms are autonomous Ether fields and there is no such thing as an electron. So, how will this fusion reactor make electricity? This new fusion reactor uses a process called aneutronic fusion. In this process, the nuclei of atoms are fused together to release energy. This process happens naturally in stars like our sun. The advantage of aneutronic fusion over fission is that it doesn't produce any radioactive waste. That's because there's no such thing as an electron in an atom. So, when the nuclei are fused together, they don't produce any radiation. The other advantage of aneutronic fusion is that it produces more energy than fission.

      4. Elmar Moelzer

        @Everett L Williams II You are underestimating the cost of mining and processing 7 billion tonnes of regolith. Really, Helion know what they are doing. Producing it using D-D is much easier and cheaper than mining the moon for it. Now, from what I understand, the atmosphere of the gas giants has higher concentrations of He3 but of course that has other problems.

      5. Everett L Williams II

        And just how long do you think 7 tons of He3 would last? I would think that it would produce up into the Twh of electricity. That would pay for the method of He3 production laid out in the video starting from that common deuterium that we do have.

    26. ILL REEL

      Extremely innovative approach, The Protium displacement worries me though... I hope they are looking at the reactors in different light spectrums... 👑✨👑

      1. Unmasked and Anonymous


    27. endemion06463

      I would rather have one of the countless technologies that would provide my own home with electricity independently from power companies. We really need to decentralize. Troy Reed's over unity generator would be great (7000W capacity) if it wasn't blocked from getting on the market back in the mid 90's.

    28. L Lee

      Excellent and informative video. However, it just highlights that much more R&D is needed to bring to fruition. Even when fusion is made net energy positive, production of Helium3 needs to be solved and energy efficient. I don't recall if the video comment on the safeness of HE4 and its disposal.

      1. Alchemist

        As mentioned n the video, there is going to be some deuterium-deuterium fusion going on anyway - and that will make He-3, jut need to separate the reaction products. And even if the side-reaction produces less energy, this two-stage process is supposed to be energy-efficient. The part with another side-reaction producing tritium and neutrons is a bit harder to manage, but they seem intent to harvest tritium as well (and absorb neutrons with lithium to make even more tritium) and then store it until it decays into He-3. As for He-4, it's a well known substance that's getting a bit expensive lately. At the very least it can be sold. And don't worry - it's completely inert, and even if released to atmosphere, it's quickly lost to space due to being so light.

      2. Julius Fučík

        He3 is relatively abundant on the moon.

    29. VOLightPortal

      I really hope one day something like this can be available to every single household in the planet. Essentially replacing gas boilers and is portable in a campervan/mobile home. $0.001 per kWh would be a dream come true and not having to freeze to death in winter time.

      1. Bottlecapbill

        The costs and maintenance of the inner shield walls alone is probably going to kill your dream sadly.

    30. CMW

      I'd like more explanation of the diagram at 16:21 as to how they produce the He3. It has 2 deuterium atoms being combined to get either He3 + a neutron or Tritium + a proton but it seems like that's the big problem that other fusion projects are attempting, and they are mostly admitting that is too difficult and going for the easier combination of Deuterium and Tritium. If they can do it then great, we get a new supply of helium without needing to go to the moon but just saying they've patented something is skipping over a major part of the problem.

      1. Jeremy Jacobsen

        @Roman Empire Good question. Is there a simple way to get the quantities of deuterium they will need? Also the by-products will contain tritium so there will probably need to be a waste processing step.

      2. Matias Langaard

        @David Kneil Helium-3 mining still isn't gonna be viable in any way due to the concentraion still being extremely low and the whole surface would need skimming with rovers sifting the dust or smth. I think a much easier way to produce it would be as decay products of tritium, however it is strictly regulated due to weapons use. Astrum has a video on it titled "The Real Reason Countries Are Going Back To The Moon".

      3. Daniel Lucas

        @PepperJackShack That's really cool, thanks for explaining that.

      4. PepperJackShack

        D + D = p T 3He, T has a half life of 12 years and turns into 3He at that time. The extra proton is turned to H2. Now you have 2 3He molecules you can use to make 4He. But the 4He fusion results in more T (which in 12 years you have free 3He) and 4He. Assuming they can do this as effectively as possibly. They get 2x as much fuel but have to wait to use it.

      5. Hawken Fox

        @Will C Well you can pay a fee to keep things from the public apparently the NIH did it with corona patents.

    31. Seth R.C

      Curious how much energy would go into producing and containing this reaction, as well as producing fuel. This comes from someone with no background in this kind of engineering and physics. Edit: and about a minute into the video after I posted that, this was addressed. Not the average energy video

    32. Pat B

      Interesting, I find it ironic that we still use steam power as part of a nuclear power system. We need to have a system that bypasses that. If these reactor requires huge amounts of current then that is being supplied via outside sources as in traditional electrical generator technology. That needs to be eliminated and have the reactors supply their own input charge as part of the circuit. Perhaps a smaller reactor suppling the initial input. All in all this is very exciting technology. Hydrocarbons fuels have been an amazing technology and have allowed us to get to this point, but they won't take us to the stars. Be thankful for coal I say to all the "greens" or we'd still be burning, wood, peat and dung living our 30 year lives in caves.

    33. Fluffy Hamster

      This is Insanely interesting, and I sincerely hope that they will succeed!👍👍👍👍👍👍


      Further, this video about the Helion's POLARIS 7th fusion reactor, as I watched it over and over again here, I think is purposely made as new prototype in order to demonstrate their goal of achieving net electricity generation as promised, by following their five (5) unique steps such as firstly the D-T or He-3 fuel gas are formed at each end of the reactor turning each into FRC plasma, then secondly by accelerating this FRC plasma at superhigh velocity to smash at each other by means of magnetic fields force from the opposite end, then thirdly after that by compressing further the newly formed unified FRC plasma by applying higher magnetic fields force at the center reaction chamber of the said reactor to achieve the highest temperature required and high density of the plasma needed and confinement time (i.e. triple product) to reach the fusion condition (but not self-ignition of a burning plasma) and then finally electricity can thus be directly captured by (i.e. turning off the fusion process according to Helion, but as to why I don't understand it ?) or just letting or releasing the FRC plasma's magnetic field to expand against the magnetic field of the coils wrapped around the POLARIS reactor where the resulting change in the magnetic flux cuts the conductor of these magnetic coils (by the principle of Faraday's Law of induction) which then induces EMF or voltage on it and since which this magnetic coils is coupled to the installed Capacitors then in effect it is able to store the electrical energy, in the process. This pulse magnetic fusion or magneto inertial fusion operation is repeated 10 times per second or like 10 Hz of frequency. Now if this 10 pulse per second rate the Polaris reactor operation by HELION will produce stable and stabilized electrical output voltage to enable it tie to the utility grid is another matter ? T.Y. !, By FMSJR.

    35. Thomas Coolidge

      Finally… a fusion video that actually explains how they intend to get power out of the fusion reaction. Thank you!

      1. Kenshkrix

        @Arturo Eugster The frequencies of light absorbed by various materials are both consistent and easy to test. For radiation emitted from Earth's surface the wavelengths around 15, 5, and 4.3 microns are absorbed by CO2. Since these wavelengths are sufficiently commonly emitted from the surface and are absorbed by CO2 in significant amounts, CO2 is considered a greenhouse gas. Disagreeing with this conclusion requires you to either disprove the electromagnetic absorption properties of CO2, or disprove the laws of thermodynamics. Good luck with that. Anyways, I don't think I've heard the phrase "dominant vibration mode" before, what does that mean?

      2. Arturo Eugster

        @Sean D don't call me bro or any thing else, that shows arrogance, not conducive to real dialect. Not answering questions is impolite. I am not playing games. but I will put you to a test : what is the frequency of the co2 dominant vibration mode, its shape and the corresponding photon energy it absorbs and reemits? Y si quieres continuar , escrí en castellano , si no lo puedes tienes mala suerte. Mejor de buscarte un tipo como tú, listo a batallas verbales. Con tipos be bajo conocimiento es pérdida de tiempo. Buenas noches.

      3. Sean D

        @Arturo Eugster bro, we have floods and famine at the some time on this planet all the time. We have floods in one part of the US while another is facing a massive drought. I have to imagine you're thinking about this from a single country or single bioregion perspective.

      4. Arturo Eugster

        @Sean D Your opinion, guaranteed by the first amendment. Not conforming with reality . Famine, yes at higher elevations, on the Altiplano, where lack of co2 content/m³ prevents the growth of c3 plants, by reducing it , that is what you are going to achieve. Go visit the place and then comment. c4 plants barely make it (corn f.i.) read up on the Milankowich cycles. Floods and famine do not go together. Besides how will you prevent water vapor as a gas and clouds as reflective surfaces to exist ?

      5. Sean D

        @Arturo Eugster Dude, there is nothing bogus about the climate change panic. The climate IS changing, no one can argue against this. We know with absolute certainty that the climate gets warmer with the amount of carbon and other GHG's in the atmosphere, again nothing to argue as all data points to this fact. The changes are absolutely being influenced by human behavior, this is also impossible to argue against, the only area of contention is what percentage of the change is being caused by human factors, but even that matters little given what we know climate change is happening regardless. Not that I believe this one bit, but many climate change deniers often fall back on the changes being natural, part of Earth's cycle. Even if it was a completely natural process (CO2 was spewing from deposits in the ocean for example), we know that the impact will be negative for the planet overall, hotter, more severe weather, more drought, etc, there would still be a benefit of humans reducing and pulling as much GHG's out of the atmosphere as possible to slow that change if not stop it. Even if warming was cyclical causing large extinctions every 100,000 years followed by a natural correction of an Ice Age, humans are at the point in our evolution where we have the ability to potentially influence the process, potentially saving billions of people from floods or famine, why wouldn't we do so?

    36. Tim Travasos

      Amazing. Superb, understandable explanation. I'm super excited about this possibility.

    37. David L. Howser

      Fusion as an Electrical Energy Resource, "IS" the energy generation source of the future, and always will be.

    38. Ad A

      The best science class I ever had. Great explainer! 👏

    39. Jim Irving

      Jumping ahead a bit, a truck-sized 50MW fusion reactor, with its compact non-chemical fuel and direct-to-electricity power scheme, might be launched into space and used to power ion or similar thrusters on a large ship to cost-effectively explore the outer solar system, mine asteroids, etc.

    40. LimitlessLuis

      Excellent endeavor! Proud of how far humanity has come. All it takes is one person or group enough initiative to embark on a seemingly difficult yet feasible solution to a worldwide problem, generating, no pun intended; 😃 celebratory results. Clean, abundant energy. Bye-bye inefficient and polluting fossil fuels. What’s not to love? 😎👍🏼

    41. DJ Claus

      Excuse me for only having a business degree, but I'm wondering if this type of generator only needs a "jump start" from external electricity? and then it will run on its own electrical supply after the fusion has started?

      1. Elmar Moelzer

        The design is pulsed. So, the first pulse will need some amount of externally supplied energy. I would guess about 1 kWh. Then that energy recirculates at 95% efficiency. Energy from fusion then adds a surplus. For the final powerplant design the power surplus is 50 MWe (about 1.5 kWh/pulse at 10Hz). Polaris is slightly smaller scale than the final powerplant and slightly less powerful. Also only operates at 1Hz. So, it will not produce 50MWe, but maybe a few kW of net electricity. Still a major milestone.

    42. BonVilain

      I still think most fusion reactor companies are run by scam artists, but I must say this video gave me hope that it's actually possible.

    43. Arseny i

      I don't work as an engineer on inertial confinement laser fusion reactors, and I'll be honest, the vast majority of people believe that science and progress will serve human society, but this is far from the case. New technologies like this, IF someday they do displace traditional fossil fuels, will serve as a cheap source of energy not for consumers, but for energy companies that are still owned by the same capitalists who profit from ordinary people, i.e. hired workers (proletarians). Economic relations are the basis (the foundation of the building), and the social relations of people are the superstructure (what is placed on the foundation brick / block). So ask yourself a question: The current inequality in the world is caused by lazy people who do not think globally, who did not start a "business in a garage" at one time, ... in fact, people who did not find application for their abilities and skills in the current economic system, "who did not fit into market", or due to the fact that the economic system itself is built so that without initial capital, it is almost impossible to become a full-fledged member of society, with a good stable salary. In the beginning, without education, due to lack of funds, no matter how capable and unique you are, you will be the ordinary dregs of this society. Likewise, if you build on a crooked foundation, you'll get a crooked building. But that's not all, the mass of robbed people received by such people, who increase inequality in society, sooner or later will think: what the hell, why do we need this 1% super-rich, greedy, soulless, leather bastards!

    44. Putins Cat

      I hope they succeed. I am in favor of direct electric conversion without neutron mediation and making more waste. All those 'green' people should get behind this.

    45. Garet Konigsfeld

      That the first time I've heard of electricity straight from fusion and not just heat. Very cool. Thanks for sharing 👍.

    46. Friendly Raid

      I'm sure this will become a reality in about 30 years from now. 😀

    47. Brandon Savoie

      It would be nice to see these type of companies come together and radioactive storage might be able be transferred to batteries an example being what NBD trying to recycle and use radioactive wastw

    48. J M L

      I work for a company that builds the capacitors that help them achieve this! It's pretty cool

      1. VIBaJ 16

        @Charles Nelson fusion

      2. Charles Nelson

        Achieve 'what' exactly?

      3. Joonas Ahonen

        "sell shovels when there's a gold rush" -- I'm also curious, what company is that? 😁

      4. David Bailey

        What company do you work for?

      5. J M L

        @Edward Holland No


      As per their information made publicly, HELION ENERGY Company's approach in harnessing the Fusion energy is different from what ITER group is doing which is the use of magnetic confinement fusion thru Tokamak reactor to study better the physics behind the principle operation and control of the fusion plasma and to attain the self-ignition or the burning plasma. However, even though the former is mindfull of attaining the so called Lawson criteria or triple product of the plasma fusion energy which is high density of the ions per, achieve very high temperatures in Kev and required confinement time in seconds, it nevertheless follows the magneto inertial fusion or pulse magnetic fusion approach such that self-ignition condition is not required on the plasma but directly converting or capture of electricity by the principle of Faraday's Law of induction due to high beta characteristic of the FRC plasma and which I believe is technicaly possible and cheaper to operate and maintain. Thus, doing away with the high pressure steam or heat collection to run steam turbines to drive alternators although according to HELION, excess energy from the plasma energy output could also be used for heating and power generation.

    50. Mateusz Radzik

      And if we collect the energy from the heat additionally, i.e. the type of generator used in vehicles in Germany, the so-called Holzgas, or a temperature-to-electricity converter, as there are furnaces that use temperature to generate electricity. So, this lossy helium is not and can only be an asset if we can collect electricity from this temperature. Hmm? #ESA #NASA #ITER #WAT #PAN

    51. James Stewart

      I agree with much of current engineering ideas, except, we have ignored using nature to produce renewable fuels, lubricants. I feel sorry when science and engineering takes the "monoculture" approach

    52. Raphael Andrews

      Fusion reactors have been around for 50 years but no one has been able to make a mass scale fusion reactor that can work for producing enoumous electricity.

    53. tacobell2009

      This video brings me hope that we can actually achieve positive energy nuclear fusion in my lifetime. I have my doubts that it will happen by 2024, but I am rather excited to see what advancements are made in the coming years.

      1. Michael Clark

        @Synic Unfortunately you're right about irrational fear of the word nuclear. How many people know the proper name for magnetic resonance imaging is nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Because the technology underlying it is nuclear magnetic resonance. The nuclear was dropped because of the connotations.

      2. Simon

        In our lifetime might be optimistic, too. These dates are mostly used for fund runs. We'll see if they tackle the problems thousands have failed. They're going for harder methods that we've seen attempted before. Not putting any stock into any of these projects unless they prove they're at a positive Q value, not a positive Qp.

      3. Chris Fallis

        I started college in 1977 at a school that had a lab working on laser fusion. I have been on the edge of my seat waiting for many, many years for a practical application of this technology.

      4. Synic

        Its the fact people don't know what its about and how amazing it could be. But people just hear nuclear and it turns them off to it without even trying to understand most of it and just assuming its something destructive.

      5. Michael Clark

        2024 seems very optimistic especially since in 2014 they were saying they would do it by 2019. If it took 8 real years to make 3 years of startup-hype progress, then 2028 maybe? More seriously, one of the biggest things to look at for viability is their progress in making He3. The energy and cost needed to do it will need to be added to the cost of the fusion reaction, and deuterium-He3 fusion already has to reach a much higher temperature for peak efficiency than deuterium-tritium fusion. Although more efficient conversion to electricity lowers the fusion efficiency needed for it to be commercially viable. And deuterium-tritium fuel cycles also suffer from scarce fuel, tritium also needing to be made though there are several ways to do it, and so far there has not been adequate consideration of that fact. We are way behind on tritium manufacturing capacity even in regards to what we need for fusion research let alone commercial electricity production.

    54. DrownedInExile

      I hope this pans out, after decades of chasing Fusion's answer to Zeno's Paradox. Plus this could give us a real incentive to revisit the moon, for H-3 mining. That could be the kickstart the Space Program badly needs. Here's to hoping.

    55. Yeah!

      they'd honestly have more progress if they made as small of a version possible, more simple to manage,and operate

      1. Vito Tuxedo

        @Yeah! - As Dr. Kirtley said, they don't consider the physics to be the principal problem; the engineering is the tough nut they have to crack. I imagine that whoever is capitalizing this wants a return on investment as soon as possible. So they're going for something that is more immediately scalable to commercial production. IOW, they're not trying to build a "Mr. Fusion" gizmo that can sit on the back of your car. Their market is electric utilities with budgets that can afford the capital cost of a commercially viable Helion power plant.

    56. Ed Fickbohm

      What I find exciting about there approach is the direct generation of power through the use of magnetic the pulse. Elegant!

    57. Stop Reading The Comments and Go To Bed

      I keep thinking of a nuclear combustible engine. lol Also, I think a lot of the answers are in space, because so much energy is needed, maybe doing radiation tests in the safety of space may help accelerate what we know. Probably too expensive now, but it's just a matter of time.

    58. Dori Gunderson Bellan

      I am a scientist in a program that uses 3He to date groundwater, along with Tritium. Deuterium is also used in our groundwater tracer studies. It’s exciting to see this technology for fusion electricity generation.

    59. Random Rant

      This is one of the best videos I have EVER seen on the topic. Not a lot on the energy recapture aspect. Seems like that would change the geometry of the fusion containment. Also while any system has loss and wear/tear for the containment material what is the optimal ratio radiation wear to energy absorption that should be aimed for? Seems like it should be forced in one direction to condense the energy to a field.

      1. Hue Man

        Its not feesable

    60. Ryan Laches

      This is incredible. Cheering Helion on, a well as material scientists for that first wall!

    61. General Rendar

      I'm rooting hard for Helion! They are truly innovating in a way that can completely change the world!

      1. Prime Revan

        @General Rendar Oh cool . That sounds good. Can I get the info on them? I want to read more about it :) . Where should I search for aforth mentioned information.

      2. General Rendar

        @Prime Revan well they have made several prototypes that have produced more power than the last. They are steadily progressing towards the size and specs necessary to to produce positive energy flow. I expect these to be used in desalination plants since that's where they can get more fuel and produce a vital resource for fresh water scarce coastlines.

      3. Prime Revan

        Have they released any full proof plan? Anything to support their idea or any product yet in the market or anything in real ? Or is it just the idea?

    62. Nick Johnson

      Meanwhile, it's quite easy and straightforward to build fission plants which reliably and economically produce electricity for at least 60 years. If the used fuel is recycled or run through a heavy water CANDU type plant, the amount of waste produced is quite manageable and easy to store underground. China has 22 new fission plants under construction with an average build time of 5 years, and cost of $5 billion for a 1,000 megawatt plant. They are now beginning to heat cities with the free waste heat. The only major problem fission plants have is political.

    63. plls12

      Initially I thought this was going to be another one of those typical fusion videos and boy was I wrong. I read about Helion a couple of years ago and it is very pleasing to watch a video with this kind of quality explaining their approach. Mentioning the triple product and the beta parameter is something not often discussed in popular videos. One small thing though, when talking about Moore’s Law the x-axis is time, so we can see the rapid growth of transistor density. However the graph shown for triple product has eV in it’s x-axis, and both the triple product and time in the y-axis. It’s still a fair comparison, but in my opinion it would be more illustrative to just have a graph with time vs triple product

      1. Electric Future

        thank you. the moore’s law to triple product chart comparison was a bit cloogy. There was also some debate about the accuracy of the comparison because the triple product graph was logarithmic and Moore’s law was linear. Others said it wasnt a good analogy because of the role of economic forcing functions in Moore’s law versus fusion triple product but I would argue there’s also growing incentives around fusion, with the year-by-year investment chart steadily rising too.

    64. Hoai huy

      Thank you so much for this…’s very soothing and calming. It really help me a lot

    65. Billy Wardlaw

      What stops the deuterium for fusing with other deuterium, instead of the helium? Wouldn't the deuterium hit the energy state it need to fuse before the helium would, and have less repuslive resistance than the helium, both increasing that likelihood?

      1. Elmar Moelzer

        They actually WANT the D-D side reactions to create He3 for their fuel.

    66. George Walker

      Commercially viable, commercially viable, that's the thing that holds up almost everything that could be overwhelmingly good as a whole for people. This technology works but you wanna make money off it and implement another system of control. Give these people the money to get this going, and the money will come for everyone exponentially thereafter. We are so close to being a type 1 civilization it's exciting to see all these changes happening in such a little amount of time.

    67. Jimmy Gravitt

      Haven't watched the video, yet, but I really hope in 2025 that someone reminds me about this video. I am just skeptical of anyone that claims they have fusion technology capable of producing excess electricity ready in 2 years. We shall see.

    68. David Studhalter

      Most of this was new to me, which is always a delight. Thanks for a very interesting and encouraging video.... even if they're not quite there yet, it's great to see this "new golden age of invention" unfolding!

      1. Mike

        We should be transferring from our current nuclear energy source to thorium. Except we can't use that to make nuclear weapons.

      2. super duper ducky

        @N1otAn1otherN1ame There is really no reason to talk to another human being like that period.

      3. Londen

        Disclaimer.......for entertainment purposes only.

    69. VaPatrick

      Just imagine a device the size of an icebox that would power your house and your car.

    70. David Jr

      This video explained in a way I could understand . Very well done

    71. Karl Stone

      It's my opinion that fusion cannot work in earth gravity; because in the sun, gravity supplies the free input of energy to overcome the exclusion principle - by crushing atoms together, such that one instance of fusion increases the probability of further instances of fusion, leading to a self sustaining reaction. On earth, this doesn't work because the input of energy required to force an instance of fusion will always be greater than the useful energy that can be derived from it. Further, any instance of fusion does not increase the probability of further instances, and so a self sustaining reaction will not occur. The input of energy required to force a series of instances of fusion will be a constant greater than any useful output. If I were investing cartloads of money in search of limitless clean energy, I might direct my attention to the giant ball of molten rock upon which we stand; like NASA did from 1975-1982 - The Magma Energy Project detailed on All of which rather invites the question - WTAF?

    72. Sang Kang

      I'll believe it when it happens. Until then, it's just another fusion concept that's in the works.

    73. David Sa

      What about designing and building a collective array to draw energy from the sun to create your power

    74. A POO STAIN

      A geothermal company called eavor could possibly power these desalination plants needed for California. It will certainly be exciting when a commercially viable fusion system is finally a reality though.

    75. Bartholomeow

      so how do you prevent a runaway reaction? at the temperatures discussed there is a real danger of the air literally catching fire in the event of a meltdown or loss of magnetic confinement

      1. Elmar Moelzer

        This is fusion, there are no runaway reactions. It is very hard to get fusion to happen in the first place. If the conditions are not perfect, the fusion reactions stop. The air won't catch fire either. Rather any contamination of the inner chamber with outside air will cause the plasma to rapidly cool and fusion reactions to stop. Also note that while the plasma is very hot, it is not very dense (a lot less dense than air). You can think of steam coming from a boiling pot is 100 degrees C and that would cause severe burns, but since steam is not very dense, you can hold your hand into it.

    76. Reality Production Machine

      awesome video, I learned a lot. However, I'm questioning why you would suggest that this won't replace "renewables"? It's cheaper, better, and always on... it doesn't turn our environment into bird killing blades chop zones, or turn nature into solar farms that desertify the surroundings made of toxic materials... Aside from that opinion, everything else was spot on tho.

      1. Elmar Moelzer

        Both have their place, I think. In some situations, RE can be cheaper and easier to do. In others these fusion machines will be a better fit.

    77. Jeremy Ellis

      You have no idea how happy it makes me to see someone trying to get away from steam powered generators, of whatever degree. Bravo. Now, just don't die in a mysterious car accident.

    78. Michael Keefer

      Tokamaks may be great for studying plasma physics, but never were a practical way to get usable power from fusion. Really glad someone is working on a linear machine that can generate usable power directly from the plasma. That a linear machine was necessary was obvious 20 years ago, but most of the money went into Tokamaks and Stellerators. Their plan was to extract heat from high energy neutrons being slowed down in a liquid lithium, blanket surrounding the plasma ring. That heat would make steam for turbine generators.. Such a plan was never going to be threat to the fossil fuel market.

    79. BlazingReaper 69

      The problem with cheap energy is that power companies are in the business of making money. So, if this technology proves fruitful, (and I hope it does) the question comes down to, how much of a % is the markup going to be, and, will it make energy cheaper, or just the power companies a greater profit margin?

    80. Benoit Boucher

      Very informative and full of fresh news about fusion. Thanks a lot for that. Cheers from Montreal.

    81. Heika

      Fossil fuels were seemingly infinite when we began burning them, so won't we end up in the same situation in the future regarding reactants for this fusion?

    82. mememuhsheen

      If this is really ready for prime time, then it will be a breakthrough. If it isn't, then we should definitely be using fission.

    83. geemy

      I've been following new about fusion - very loosely - for years and it seems like everyone assumed there was plenty of deuterium and tritium to supply electricity to humankind for centuries but I just discovered the issue about very limited amounts of tritium are and how fast it's getting used, AND that fusion reactors being able to generate more tritium than they use is only theoretical, and feasibility is questioned by some scientist. imagine building a fusion rector and not being able to start it or to keep it on for lack of tritium... If profitable fusion reactors with positive net power are figured out quickly enough, I guess we could build many CANDUs because of huge value of tritium, even if takes years. but if the stockpile of tritium is exhausted with no economic reason to produce tritium except fusion research, it could be a huge blow to fusion research and it could slow down research by deveral decades..imagine trying to invent steam or combustion engine with no wood/coal/petrol

      1. Elmar Moelzer

        Helion is not using Tritium. They fusion Deuterium, which produces Tritium and He3 (50:50 chance). The He3 is fed back into the machine to boost power output. The Tritium will eventually decay into more He3 or can be traded, etc.

    84. Jamway of Aiken-Augusta rock band

      Absolutely fascinating I hope that you have Mr David Adair as a consultant to help you with this since he is the first human being to ever create a successful Fusion reactor

    85. Gem Cox

      It’s a reactor if you can get a nuclear reaction in it that is a self sustaining chain reaction ( critical mass). To be on a power plant it needs to produce more power than it takes to maintain the reaction.

      1. Elmar Moelzer

        There is no chain reaction.

    86. Deziderije Tot

      Maybe combine the energies obtained from the sun, water, air, etc. into one?

    87. Kaligath

      The thing is for fusion to work it must be able to defuse at rates equal to the fusion constantly repeating this process over and over thus creating a singularity.

    88. 🌊s o s⚖️

      😑🔮I remember talking about this eleven and a half years ago and giving some similar suggestions,👻 like the harnessing or containing it with an electro magnetic field controlled that would need to be directed by a computer ai. And quartz... Looks like I have a reason to visit France 🥳✌️🌙🦇(I was going to visit anyway, because I recently found out I was part Huguenot.) Great job! Amazing.😳

      1. Mad Calm

        This approach is very reliant on fast computations & advanced semi-conductor power electronics, that's why it couldn't be tried earlier.

    89. S A

      I've been studying fusion generation for most of my life and this is the most viable fusion generator to become reality. The only concern I would have is the stability of the magnetic field and any losses due to instability.

      1. Vito Tuxedo

        @Bob E Essentially, yes: a worst-case catastrophic failure for a Helion unit is very bad for the reactor, but there is no danger to the general public. It's not a matter of having "cleverly designed safequards". Safety systems can fail. The safeguards here are the laws of physics. They don't fail.

      2. Vito Tuxedo

        @phillip lapkovitch They're not talking about thermal temperature, as in heat. Rather, temperature is just an analog of *_energy_* in this application - a convenient way of expressing that parameter in absolute terms. This is not like a fission reactor with a positive temperature coefficient; it can't run away with itself in an out of control reaction. The worst thing that can happen is it will just not work - bad for the investors, but no one else.

      3. Braca Mitchell

        What do they use to cool these heat monsters? Regular water or something novel like molten sodium ??

      4. Eric Perkins

        @mjinba07 What disaster? If it fails, it just stops working and most of the thing melts. There is no radiation issue in fusion. It won't blow up if that's what you're worried about.

      5. J D

        @Electric Future bAsElEsS nEgAtIvItY. The cornerstone of science is doubt, not faith (that's religion). Show me the money.

    90. Skippy

      I’ve been following fusion for a decade and your video stands out as one of the most concise, informative and enjoyable ones out there. Great work

      1. Dean Youngblood

        @Alan Tasman Ive been following fusion for half that time and feel the same haha. I will still click on these videos as fast as any enthusiast though.

    91. SweGunner71

      So, technically, we will be able to produce more or less an infinite amount of energy virtually dirt cheap. For the end consumer (you and me), electricity will never be cheap.

    92. Gastón Pössel

      Very well explained, congrats!

    93. Renan Monteiro Barbosa

      lattice confined fusion is already a working technology and is a reliable substitute for traditional nuclear fuel and integrates on existing nuclear reactors

      1. teo delfuego

        On which planet?

    94. megamanrulesall

      Could fusion technology also allow the creation of new unseen materials/elements in the future?

      1. thoughtlesskills

        Only problem with new elements is only super heavy unstable elements that tend to be very radioactive are 'undiscovered' in our current models.

    95. john ramirez

      Finally someone is thinking outside the box. Direct elecricity production. Making heat to run turbines is antiquated. Perhaps there will be excess heat to do that with but i think this thinking is the next step in electricity generation.

    96. Joseph Bloggs

      The Fusion Paradox: No matter what year you're in... Fusion power is ALWAYS 10 years away.

    97. Brandon White

      Every home needs to have a micro power cell. Power lines, pole to pole wiring or even burial cable will be a thing of the past. Instead of making a device that powers up entire cities think of something that’s the size of a water heater.

    98. Graham Bennett

      It's a lovely thought, but clearly still the old famous 20 years or more away. Love the idea of getting rid of the ancient steam turbine tech - which, looks more practical and promising than the fusion. Without a second watch, not sure if the same could be done for today's - and even tomorrow's - "new" nuclear (but actually *old* nuclear - fission-powered) plants. These have always been more primitive than the renewable alternatives PV solar, wind and even ancient hydro and tidal, that can generate without steam power - and without producing deadly fuel waste. Still: At last, some decent quality vapourware for nuclear power companies. One of the huge problems faced by the current [fission-powered] nuclear industry, is the poor quality of their vapourware, e.g., Small Modular Reactors - not viable yet (cost, corrosion, containment, emissions problems, etc.). This makes the nuclear bait-and switch con trick much harder to perpetrate - even given gullible politicians and public - i.e. showing people "new nuclear" and then delivering old dirty fission technology - as is happening in the UK and US. It has been getting much harder, of course, in the wake of Chernobyl, Fukushima, Three Mile Island, Dounreay (ever heard of that one) and countless other nuclear "accidents" (aka inevitable disasters). This might make it a bit easier to fool people that today's - and tomorrow's - nuclear power plants are clean, safe and cheap - which - of course - they are not. All these videos are missing a vital something. Could be "barking up the wrong tree". The real reason nuclear power came into existence was to provide raw materials for nuclear weapons, and although the nuclear power industry now has a life of its own, it is difficult to imagine it ever being cheaper than the alternatives. Now, if you can show me that with fusion we can make weapons of mass destruction to match Putin/Russia or the Chinese (the countries)...then I'm interested.

    99. ShneekeyTheLost

      So let me get this right... to create a fusion reactor, you basically created two coil gun plasma throwers and aimed them at each other? Awesome!

      1. Daniel Lucas

        @Frost River What goes wrong is that it's incredibly difficult to keep the process going. This is a common misconception that gets carried over in people's minds from the problems with fission power. People think that because they're both nuclear, or because they sound alike, that they'll have similar problems, but fusion reactions cause huge explosions or meltdowns when they fail, they just fizzle. So yes, actually, it is "totally safe". Effective? Well, that's the problem everybody is trying to solve.

      2. Frost River

        @Fergus Shan what could go wrong? Totally safe and effective I’m sure

      3. Fergus Shan

        Did you watch the video? They hold it with strong magnetic fields, because plasma particles are charged. The walls of the enclosure have to be pretty heat resistant though, despite being physically not in contact with the plasma.

      4. ShneekeyTheLost

        @Manuell Then you should probably educate yourself, because we do it all the time. Heck, the fluorescent tubes you find in all the office buildings is technically exciting molecules into a plasma state to give off light. You can make a form of plasma in your microwave with grape seeds, and contain it with a glass. Also, you don't seem to understand the concept of what a melting point is if you try to claim that Plasma is hotter than all known solid materials. If you are trying to say that the plasma state is hotter than the solid state of any given material, that's a given considering the very definition of the states of matter. If you're trying to say that there are no solid objects hotter than any form of plasma, you're simply incorrect in that. Some substances do have melting points higher than the temperature of some plasma. You're also grossly incorrect in our inability to contain plasma even if it is that hot, such as found in modern tokamak fusion reactors that have yet to reach power neutrality. You use electromagnetic fields to contain the plasma. This is something we've been doing for decades now.

      5. Manuell

        I don't think anything that can hold or transport plasma exists. It's hotter than all known solid materials.

    100. Łukasz Lampart

      From the tech demonstration I caught the impression that Helion is not using superconducting magnets in their device, maybe new generation of high temperature superconductors could help get more energy from the system?

      1. Elmar Moelzer

        They are not. SCs (even HSCs) have the problem that they take a lot of energy and time to cool down. Helion's machines are aimed at ramping up and down really quickly.